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Precious or semi-precious stones are known as Gemstones and a Gemstone is a piece of attractive mineral which is used to make jewelry or other adornments after cutting and polishing. A few rocks and organic materials such as amber are not minerals but are still used for making jewellery and often considered as Gemstones.

Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are also used in jewelry because of their luster or other physical properties. Rare availability is the most important thing that adds Value to a gemstone. Used for variety of purposes, there is a wide spectrum of semi-precious stones in different shapes, sizes, color, brilliance and clarity. These stones are classified into different groups, species, and varieties.
Classification of Stones
Precious Stones :

The most precious stones are the diamonds, emeralds, rubies and sapphires. The pearl is oftentimes classed with precious stones. Although strictly speaking while it is not a stone it holds an esteemed place in jewelry.
Semi-Precious Stones:

Many stones used in jewelry are known as semi-precious sotnes and most of them are as follow: amethyst, lapis-lazuli, turquoise, aquamarine, topaz, moonstone, peridot, opal, tourmaline, zircon, chrysoberyl, and alexandrite. The variety of colors to be had in these stones makes it possible to produce unusual designs of artistic merit.
Semi-Precious Stones
1. Agate-
It is believed that Agate renders the wearer invisible and due to its strength and durability, it is used for making ornaments and for astrological purposes. Being a cooling stone, Agate is said to cure insomnia, protect against danger, promote strength and healing and ensures a healthy life.

2. Amber -
Amber is a hard translucent yellow, orange, or brownish-yellow fossil resin. It is exuded as a protective mechanism against disease and insect infestations. It is available in dense and wet sediments formed at the bottom of an ancient lagoon or a river delta. Amber with elegant and attractive colors is used for making jewelry and other ornamental objects.

3. Amethyst -
Amethyst is a beautiful Indian Gemstone available in a wide variety of cut and uncut stones, calibrated sizes and shapes, including many fancy shapes. Because of the patchiness of the color distribution in the crystals, amethyst is cut as brilliant round cuts to maximize the color.

4. Chalcedony -
Chalcedony is a translucent to transparent milky or grayish quartz with distinctive microscopic crystals arranged in slender fibers in parallel bands. Chalcedony occurs in many forms, colors, and shapes.

5. Jade -
Jade Mainly, are of bright green color. These rarely found jade sotnes are extremely beautiful. In jadeite beads, the degree of translucency is higher than the average translucency of entire jade stone family. Jade beads are available in a wide range of colors and color combinations. These color shades include green, gray, pink, yellow and brown.

6. Lapis -
LazuliLapis lazuli is an opaque to translucent blue, violet-blue, or greenish-blue semi precious gemstone composed mainly of lazurite and calcite. Lazurite is resistant to atmospheric gases, is lightfast and possesses good hiding power. It is durable with all other permanent pigments.

7. Topaz -
Topaz is a colorless, blue, yellow, brown, or pink aluminum silicate mineral, often found in association with granitic rocks and valued as a Gemstone, especially in the brown and pink varieties. Under suitable conditions, topaz grows into enormous crystals.

8. Zircon -
Zircon is known as a colorless stone used to imitate diamonds and is also available in blue, yellow, orange, red, brown and green shades. It gets its name from Persian Zargun meaning "gold color". There are several varieties of zircon available.
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